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读关培根的散文

2017-02-10 11:38:32 散文欣赏 来源:http://www.39394.com 浏览:

导读: 读关培根的散文(共4篇)培根散文,英语篇一:培根散文赏析谈读书读书足以怡情,足以傅彩,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其傅彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一判别枝节,然纵观统筹、全局策划,则舍好学深思者莫属。读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态...

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读关培根的散文 第一篇_培根散文,英语

篇一:培根散文赏析

谈读书

读书足以怡情,足以傅彩,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其傅彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一判别枝节,然纵观统筹、全局策划,则舍好学深思者莫属。读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹如自然花草,读书然后知如何修剪移接;而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。有一技之长者鄙读书,无知者羡读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。读书时不可存心诘难作者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只须读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而无味矣。

读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常作笔记者须记忆特强,不常讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞使人善辩;凡有所学,皆成性格。人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑术利头脑,诸如此类。如智力不集中,可令读数学,盖演题须全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辨异,可令读经院哲学,盖是辈皆吹毛求疵之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。如此头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特药可医。

(王佐良译)

studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business.

to spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgement wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar. they perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need proyning (pruning) by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in/ by experience. crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation.

read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.

some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. and therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not.

histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtile; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. abeunt studia in morse.

(studeis go to make up a man’s character. nay there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach ; riding for the head; and the like. 文章的第一部分重点谈到跟读书相关的一些基本问题:读书之目的、读书之作用、读书与运用,以及如何读书。文章首先高度概括了古今之人读书之目的:读书可以“怡情”“傅彩”“长才”,并指出了这三种读书姿态在生活当中的具体表现。其次,作用又指出了读书的作用,并洞明了读书与经验之间的关系。在他看来,读书是可以“补天然之不足”,并形象地指出,读书之于天性,犹如修剪之于花草。在这里,培根睿智地点明了“读书”“天然”与“经验”之间的辩证关系,即读书可以补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足;其实用主义的哲学理念从字里行间见出。文章第一部分中给读者印象最深的恐怕是培根谈读书方法的那几句:“书有可尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。”这里,培根再次用形象的语言将几种不同的读书方式区别开来。在信息爆炸的时代,更多情况下我们缺少的恐怕不是信息,而是如何处理信息;我们缺少的恐怕不是书籍,而是如何高效地去吸收书本知识、整合前人的知识。从这个意义上看,培根的这种对各种书籍的区别对待的阅读方式,在今天仍然值得我们借鉴。当然,这里有一点需要说明,培根认为,有的书“亦可请人代读”。这里所说的“代读”,在培根那个时代的贵族当中是常见的,但在今天,作为普通读者则很难做到。不过,今天有的人还是有请人“代篇二:散文英译汉佳作赏析:培根《论养生》

最牛英语口语培训模式:躺在家里练口语,全程外教一对一,三个月畅谈无阻! 洛基英语,免费体验全部在线一对一课程: /wenkxd.htm(报名网址)

of regiment of health

论养生

there is a wisdom in this, beyond the rules of physic: a mans own observation, what he finds good of, and what he finds hurt of, is the best physic to preserve health. 养生有道,非医学底规律所能尽。一个人自己的观察,他对于何者有益何者有害于自己的知识,乃是最好的保健药品。

but it is a safer conclusion to say; this agreeth not well with me, therefore i will not continue it; than this; i fmd no offence of this, therefore i may use it. for strength of nature in youth passeth over many excesses, which are owing a man till his age. discern 洛基英语是中国英语培训市场上的一朵奇葩,是全球已被验证的东方人英语学习的最佳模式。洛基英

但是在下断语的时候,如果说:“这个与我底身体不合,因此我要戒它”,比说:“这个好象于我没有什么害处,因此我要用它”较为安全得多。因为少壮时代底天赋的强力可以忍受许多纵欲的行为,而这些行为是等于记在账上,到了老年的时候,是要还的。留心你底年岁底增加,不要永远想做同一的事情,因为年岁是不受蔑视的。

在饮食底重要部分上不可骤然变更,如果不得已而变更的话,则别的部分也须要变更,以便配合得宜。因为在自然的事体和国家的事务上都有一种秘诀,就是变一事不如变多事的安全。把你平日饮食、睡眠、运动、衣服、等等的习惯自省一下,并且把其中你认为有害的习惯试行逐渐戒绝,但是其办法应当这样,如果你由这种变更而感觉不适的时候,就应当回到原来的习惯去;因为把一般认为有益卫生的习惯和于个人有益,于你自己底身体适合的习惯分别起来是不容易的。

在吃饭、睡觉、运动的时候,心中坦然,精神愉快,乃是长寿底最好秘诀之一。至于心中的情感及思想,则应避嫉妒,焦虑,压在心里的怒气,奥秘难解的研究,过度的欢乐,暗藏的悲哀。

应当长存着的是希望,愉快,而非狂欢;变换不同的乐事,而非过餍的乐事;好奇与仰慕,以保有新鲜的情趣;以光辉灿烂的事物充满人心的学问,如历史、寓言、自然研究皆是也。如果你在健康的时候完全摒弃医药,则到了你需要它的时候将感觉医药对于你底身体过于生疏不惯。如果你平日过于惯用医药,则疾病来时,医药将不生奇效。窃以为与其常服药饵,不如按季节变更食物,除非服药已经成了一种习惯。

for those diets alter the body more, and trouble it less. despise no new accident in your body, but ask opinion of it in sickness, respect health principally; and in health, action. 洛基英语是中国英语培训市场上的一朵奇葩,是全球已被验证的东方人英语学习的最佳模式。洛基英因为那些不同的食物是可以变更体气而不扰乱它的。对于身体上任何新的症候都不可小视,须要向人求教。

for those that put their bodies to endure in health, may in most sickness, which are not very sharp, be cured only with diet, and tendering.

在病中,主要的是注意健康;在健康的时候,主要的是注意活动。因为那平日使自己底身体习于劳动的人在大多数不很厉害的疾病中只要节饮食,多调养,就可以好了。

celsus could never have spoken it as a physician, had he not been a wise man withal, when he giveth it, for one of the great precepts of health and lasting, that a man do vary, and interchange contraries; but with an inclination to the more benign extreme: use fasting, and full eating, but rather full eating; watching and sleep, but rather sleep;sitting, and exercise, but rather exercise; and the like.

塞尔撒斯教人养生长寿之道,最要的一端就是一个人应当把各种相反的习惯都变换着练习练习,但是在轻重之间却应当稍重那有益于人的一端;禁食与饱食都应当练习,但是宁可稍重饱食;警醒与睡眠都应当练习,但是宁可偏尚睡眼;安坐与运动都应当练习,但是宁可着重运动;诸如此类。

塞尔撒斯要不是一位医生而兼哲人的话,专以医生底身分他是永不会说出这种话来的。如他所说的办法,将使天生的体质既可以得滋养又可以增力量也。医生之中有些是对于病人底脾气很纵容迁就的,以致不能迅收治疗之效;又有些人则是照治病底学理行事,十分谨严,以致对于病者底实情不充分注重。选择医生的时候顶好请一位性情适中的;或者,如果一个人没有这样的性情的时候,则在两种人里各取其一而调和之。又在请医生的时候,固然要请那出名的好医生,也不可忘了请那个最熟悉你底体格的医生也。

洛基英语是中国英语培训市场上的一朵奇葩,是全球已被验证的东方人英语学习的最佳模式。洛基英篇三:培根:论司法(中英文)

培根散文随笔集第56章:of

judicature论司法|论法官(中英对照)

培根散文随笔集中英对照,通过阅读文学名著学语言,是掌握英语的绝佳方法。既可接触原汁原味的英语,又能享受文学

培根散文随笔集中英对照,通过阅读文学名著学语言,是掌握英语的绝佳方法。既可接触原汁原味的英语,又能享受文学之美,一举两得,何乐不为?

对于喜欢阅读名著的读者,这是一个最好的时代,因为有成千上万的书可以选择;这又是一个不好的时代,因为在浩繁的卷帙中,很难找到适合自己的好书。而培根的散文随笔,浓缩的不仅仅是文学,还是智慧。相信对阅读和写作都有很好的帮助。 of judicature论司法|论法官judges ought to remember that their office is jus dicere, and not jus dare; to interpret law, and not to make law, or give law.

法官们必须记住,他们的职权是解释法律而不是制造法律或立法。

else will it be like the authority, claimed by the church of rome, which under

pretext of exposition of scripture, does not stick to add and alter; and to pronounce that which they do not find; and by show of antiquity, to introduce novelty. 如若不然,它将如罗马教会所要求的权力一样; 罗马教会不仅假解释《圣经》之名,任意增添与改动,而且借复古之名,标新立异,宣传《圣经》中找不出来的东西。

judges ought to be more learned than witty, more reverend than plausible,and more advised than confident.

法官应当学问多于机智,严肃多于贫嘴,虚心多于自信。

above all things, integrity is their portion and proper virtue.

尊严是他们的本分与美德——这是最最重要的。

cursed (says the law) is he that removes the landmark.

“移动界石者应该受到诅咒”(犹太律说)。

the mislayer of a mere-stone is to blame.

放错界石的人要受到谴责。

but it is the unjust judge that is the capital remover of landmarks when he defines amiss of lands and property.

而不公正的法官,当他对田地与财产做出错误判决时,就是主要的移动界石者。one foul sentence does more hurt than many foul examples. 一个不公正的判决比多个不正当的案例为害更大。 for these do but corrupt the stream, the other corrupts the fountain. 因为这些坏东西只是弄脏水流,而不公正的、肮脏的判决则败坏水源。

so with solomon, fons turbatus, et vena corrupta, est justus cadens in causa sua coram adversario. the office of judges may have reference unto the parties that use, unto the advocates that plead, unto the clerks and ministers of justice underneath them, and to the sovereign or state above them.

因此所罗门说,“正义者在邪恶者面前败诉,如同浑浊之泉,把井水弄浊”(拉丁文)。法官的职权可能跟诉讼者,与辩护者,跟自己下属的司法官吏,跟自己上面的君主或国家都发生关系。

first, for the causes or parties that sue.

第一,先说诉讼的双方。

there be (says the scripture) that turn judgment into wormwood; and surely there be also that turn it into vinegar; for injustice makes it bitter, and delays make it sour. “有人把审判变为苦艾”(《圣经》这样说);确实也有人把审判变为酸醋;因为不公正使审判变苦,而迟延使审判变酸。

【读关培根的散文】

the principal duty of a judge is to suppress force and fraud; whereof force is the more pernicious, when it is open, and fraud, when it is close and disguised. 法官的主要职责是压制暴力与诈骗;暴力公开时更加恶毒,诈骗秘密时更加险恶。add thereto contentious suits, which ought to be spewed out, as the surfeit of courts. 再加上那些好讼者的案件,这种案件应当作为阻塞法庭的东西加以唾弃。

法官应当为公平的判决开辟道路,像上帝开辟道路那样,填高谷地,削低山峰:所以,当诉讼两方的任何一方出现以势压人、实行暴力、投机取巧、狼狈为奸、动用权力、大施阴谋等情况,法官若能使不公平变得公平,使自己的判断立足于公平的基地,那就可见其才德了。 qui fortiter emungit, elicit sanguinem; and where the wine-press is hard wrought, it yields a harsh wine that tastes of the grape-stone. “扭鼻子必出血”;榨葡萄汁的机器若圧力过猛,那就会生产出带葡萄核干涩味的葡萄酒。

judges must beware of hard constructions and strained inferences; for there is no

worse torture than the torture of laws.

法官必须留神,不可对法律条文牵强附会,随意推论;因为没有比法律的折磨更恶的折磨了。 specially in case of laws penal, they ought to have care that what was meant forterror be not turned into rigor; and that they bring not upon the people, that shower whereof the scripture speaks, pluet super eos laqueos; for penal laws

【读关培根的散文】

pressed, are a shower of snares upon the people. 尤其在刑法案件中,法官应当注意,不要让意在防止恐怖的法律变成虐待人民的刑律。他们不可把《圣经》上所说的那种“网罗之雨”(拉丁文)带给人民;因为刑法过于严厉,就是下在人民身上的网罗之雨。

therefore let penal laws, if they have been sleepers of long, or if they be grown unfit for the present time, be by wise judges confined in the execution: judicis officium est, ut res, ita tempora rerum, etc.

所以,刑法中若有久已不用或不适于当前的条例,聪明的法官就应当限制其施行:“法官的职责,不仅在于审察某案的事实,还要审察其时候及环境,等等”。

in causes of life and death, judges ought (as far as the law permits) in justice to remember mercy; and to cast a severe eye upon the example, but a merciful eye upon the person.

在有关人命的案件中,法官应当(在法律容许的范围内)在公平的条件下想到仁慈;以严厉的眼光对事,而以仁慈的眼光对人。

(causes与 causes同义,又见本段开头。译者注)

secondly, for the advocates and counsel that plead.

第二,关于律师与辩护顾问。

读关培根的散文 第二篇_培根美文《论读书》原文及三种译文鉴赏

培根美文《论读书》原文及三种译文鉴赏

阅读是我们获取知识的重要手段,下面是培根著名的关于读书的一篇美文——论读书,并奉上另外两个版本的译文。对于好的书,可以多加研读,对于普通书籍,知其大意即可,就像在快速阅读中,阅读是弹性的,你可以选择对内容把握程度的深浅。“有些书可以浅尝辄止,有些书可以生吞,而有少数书应该细嚼慢咽,融会贯通”——

谈读书

——王佐良译

读书足以怡情,足以博彩,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其博彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判别枝节,然纵观统筹、全局策划,则舍好学深思者莫属。

读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹如自然花草,读书然后知如何修剪移接;而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。

有一技之长鄙读书,无知者慕读书,唯明智之士用读书,然读书并不以用处告人,用书之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。读书时不可存心诘难作者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。

书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只须读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而五味矣。

读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常做笔记者须记忆特强,不常讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。

读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,论理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩:凡有所学,皆成性格。人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑术利头脑,诸如此类。如智力不集中,可令读数学,盖演算须全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辨异,可令读经院哲学,盖是辈皆吹毛求疵之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。如此头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特药可医。

【原文】 音频/youergequ/p429386/

Of Studies

——Francis Bacon

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs come best from those that are learned.

To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affection; to make judgment wholly by their rules is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study, and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.

Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them, for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confuse; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.【读关培根的散文】

Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be ready wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are, like common distilled waters, flashy things. Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning to seem to know that he doth not.

Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.【读关培根的散文】

Abeunt studia in mores. Nay there is no stond or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man’s wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers’ cases. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.

论读书

——廖运范译

读书能给人乐趣、文雅和能力。人们独居或退隐的时候,最能体会到读书的乐趣;谈话的时候,最能表现出读书的文雅;判断和处理事务的时候,最能发挥由读书而获得的能力。那些有实际经验而没有学识的人,也许能够一一实行或判断某些事物的细微末节,但对于事业的一般指导、筹划与处理,还是真正有学问的人才能胜任。

耗费过多的时间去读书便是迟滞,过分用学问自炫便是矫揉造作,而全凭学理判断一切,则是书呆子的癖好。学问能美化人性,经验又能充实学问。天生的植物需要人工修剪,人类的本性也需要学问诱导,而学问本身又必须以经验来规范,否则便太迂阔了。

技巧的人轻视学问,浅薄的人惊服学问,聪明的人却能利用学问。因为学问本身并不曾把它的用途教给人,至于如何去应用它,那是在学问之外、超越学问之上、由观察而获得的一种聪明呢!读书不是为着要辩驳,也不是要盲目信从,更不是去寻找谈话的资料,而是要去权衡和思考。

有些书只需浅尝,有些书可以狼吞,有些书要细嚼慢咽,漫漫消化。也就是说,有的书只需选读,有的书只需浏览,有的书却必须全部精读。有些书不必去读原本,读读它们的节本就够了,但这仅限于内容不大重要的二流书籍:否则,删节过的往往就像蒸馏水一样,淡而无味。

读书使人渊博,论辩使人机敏,写作使人精细。如果一个人很少写作,他就需要有很强的记忆力;如果他很少辩论,就需要有机智;如果他很少读书,就需要很狡猾,对于自己不懂的事情,假装知道。 历史使人聪明,诗歌使人富于想象,数学使人精确,自然哲学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑学和修辞学使人善辩。

总之,读书能陶冶个性。不仅如此,读书并且可以铲除一切心理上的障碍,正如适当的运动能够矫治身体上的某些疾病一般。例如,滚球有益于肾脏;射箭有益于胸肺;散步有益于肠胃;骑马有益于头脑等等。因此,假若一个人心神散乱,最好让他学习数学,因为在演算数学题目的时候,一定得全神贯注,如果注意力稍一分散,就必须得再从头做起。假若一个人拙于辨别差异,就让他去请教那些演绎派的大师们,因为他们正是剖析毫发的人。假若一个人心灵迟滞,不能举一反三,最好让他去研究律师的案件。所以每一种心理缺陷,都有一种特殊的补救良方。

论学习

——孙有中译

学习可以作为消遣,作为装点,也可以增进才能。其为消遣之用,主在独处、归休之时;为装点,则在高谈阔论之中;为才能,则在明辨是非、深谋远虑之间;因为专于一技者可以操持甚或判断一事一物,而唯有博学之士方能纵观全局,通权达变。

过度沉溺于学习是怠惰;过度炫耀学问是华而不实;食书不化乃书生之大疾。学习可以完善天性,并通过经验得以完善自身;因为天生之才犹如天然之草木,尚需通过学习加以修整;而纸上学问未免空谈,除非由经验加以约束。

聪颖者鄙视学习,愚鲁者羡慕学习,明智者利用学习;学习本身并不教人如何运用;唯有观察可以带来超越学习的智慧。读书不为争论长短,不为轻信盲从,也不为高谈阔论,而旨在衡情度理。

有些书可以浅尝辄止,有些书可以生吞,而有少数书应该细嚼慢咽,融会贯通;换言之,有些书可以

阅读,但不必谨小慎微;而有少数书应该悉心通读,刻苦研习。有些书可以请人代读,也可以读其节选;但这只限于那些不够重要的论述和粗制滥造的书籍;否则,经过提炼的书犹如经过提炼的水一样,淡而无味。

读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人严谨;因此,假若一个人很少做笔记,那他需要有超人的记忆;假若他很少讨论,那他需要天资聪颖;而假若他很少读书,那他需要有充分的狡诈掩饰自己的无知。 读史使人明智,读诗使人聪颖,算数使人缜密,自然哲学使人深刻,伦理使人庄重,逻辑与修辞使人善辩。

总之,学习造就性格;不尽如此,心智中任何障碍可以通过恰当的学习来疏通。这正如身体尚的疾病可以通过恰当的锻炼来消除:滚球有益于腰肾,射箭有益于胸肺,慢步有益于肠胃,骑马有益于大脑,等等。因此,假若有人甚至懒散,那就让他学习算术,因为在演算中,注意力稍有分散,他就必须从头做起;假若他的智慧不足以辨别差异,那就让他学习经院哲学家,因为他们善于吹毛求疵;而假若他不擅处理事务,不能触类旁通,那就让他学习律师的案例。因此,心智上的每一种缺陷都可能有专门的药方。

三个译本中,王佐良先生的译本简练,廖运范先生的译本准确,孙有中先生的译本明白,阅读时可对照欣赏,挑选适合自己的版本。即使是同一文章的译文,表达相同的意思,但是,词措的不同,理解起来也会有些许差异,在快速阅读中也是如此,针对不同的阅读对象,我们会有不同的速度,而精英特速读记忆训练软件,可以帮助你掌握快速提取与分辨信息,并把它整理归类,提高阅读速度,使各类阅读更为效率。

前几天应邀给朋友们谈了谈培根Of Studies一文的汉语翻译问题。现将部分讲稿发布于此,请砭正。

【文趣欣赏】

Of Studies,是培根400年前撰写的一篇探讨读书问题的散文杂记,亦是英语文学中妇孺皆知的劝学名篇。该文笔力遒劲苍幽,思想精深悠远,行文简洁明快,论述深入浅出,分析桴鼓相应,读来时若春雨润物,时若激流漂石,时若清风拂面,时若万籁俱号,令人似置身庄子《齐物论》所谓之“野马也,尘埃也,生物之以息相吹也”之境界中。

Of Studies从读书之功用立论,分析了读书学习对人生不同凡响的意义。同时人们对读书学习态度之取向、方法之别异,也直接影响到了学习效果的泾渭两色。培根以为读书的功用有三,即Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability。其在人生中的具体体现亦有三,即 Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business.【读关培根的散文】

在作者看来,人们的经验与学识,亦直接影响其读书之取向与效用。具体说来,就是expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs come best from those that are learned. 由于方法之不同,学习之效果也将各异。所以培根说,To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affection; to make judgment wholly by their rules is the humor of a scholar. 这个

说法颇似孟子“仅信书则不如无书”之教诲。

读书不能全凭经验判理,而学识亦不可脱离实际独存。经验与学识,当是相辅相成的、彼此互补的。在培根看来,这两方面的积累是人生所不可或缺的知识积淀。所以,They perfect nature and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study, and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.

【读关培根的散文】

而对读书态度之不同,亦决定读书者获益之众寡。常见的现象是,Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them, for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them and above them, won by observation. 读书不求学问长进,而是存心吹毛求疵诘难作者,以显其能。这是另外一种庸人读书心态。怀着此种心态读书,焉能从中获益!所以培根告诫学人,Read not to contradict and confuse; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.

在前苏联电影《列宁在1918》中,有这样一个情节:列宁为了躲避密探的追捕,隐蔽朋友瓦西里家里。晚上,列宁将瓦西里给他搬来的书分作两类,并告诉瓦西里哪些书可以枕头,哪些书应当垫脚。所谓枕头的书,就是需要认真拜读、仔细品味、努力思考的佳作。所谓垫脚的书,就是那些文风浮浅、思想轻浅、论述表浅的平庸之作。培根对书的认识与列宁的看法,可谓所见不差。所以他说,Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be ready wholly, and with diligence and attention.

读书的方法,自然涵盖对所读之书的选择和所读内容的鉴赏这两个方面。然而,在一定意义上,读书的方法还包括所谓之“不读之读”。“不读之读”,即由于种种原因,读者不直接阅读有关书本的内容,而是通过阅读有关评介文章或他人的读书笔记来了解有关著作的基本思想和内容。这种读书方式,其实就是现代人士所惯常凭借之学习方法。人们采用这种学习方法,出于种种原因。一则原著阙如,无法直接欣赏,于是便通过阅读他人的笔记或评介以足心愿。二则时间有限,无法一一拜读,只好寻求便捷途径了解其大致内容要旨。自然,采用这种读书方法的,恐怕也有投机之嫌。

然而,对于孜孜以求于学问的莘莘学子而言,此法之运用,必得统筹兼顾,否则必然陷入人云亦云的泥沼之中。对此,培根的忠告是:Some books also may be read by deputy and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are, like common distilled waters, flashy things.

高尔基说,书籍是人类进步的阶梯。对人类来说,书籍是进步的阶梯。对于个人来说,书籍,自然,也是进步的阶梯。书籍可以提高个人的文化素养、扩展个人的思想境界和发展个人的智慧潜能。所以,培根说Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.读书者要达到这样一个收获颇丰的境界,其前提要律至关重要,那就是所读之书须是好书佳作。

懒于读书之人,想谋求进取,恐怕只能求实于梦中,绝难得益于现实。诚如培根所言: if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present

读关培根的散文 第三篇_培根散文欣赏:论爱情

舞台上的爱情比生活中的爱情要美好得多。因为在舞台上,爱情只是喜剧和悲剧的素材。而在人生中,爱情却常常招来不幸。它有时像那位诱惑人的魔女,有时又像那位复仇的女神。你可以看到,一切真正伟大的人物(无论是古人、今人,只要是其英名永铭于人类记忆中的),“没有一个是因爱情而发狂的人:因为伟大的事业抑制了这种软弱的感憎。只有罗马的安东尼和克劳底亚是例外。前者本性就好色荒淫,然而后者却是严肃多谋的人。所以爱情不仅会占领开旷坦阔的胸怀,有时也能闯入壁垒森严的心灵--假如守御不严的话。 埃皮克拉斯曾说过一句笑话:“人生不过是一座大戏台。”似乎本应努力追求高尚事业的人类,却只应像玩偶奴隶般地逢场作戏似的。虽然爱情的奴隶并不同于那班只顾吃喝的禽兽,但毕竟也只是眼目色相的奴隶--而上帝赐人以眼睛本来是更高尚的用途的。

过度的爱情追求,必然会降低人本身的价值。例如,只有在爱情中,才永远需要那种浮夸诌媚的词令。而在其他场合,同样的词令只能招人耻笑。古人有一句名言:“最大的奉承,人总是留给自己的”。--只有对情人的奉承要算例外。因为甚至最骄傲的人,也甘愿在情人面前自轻自贱。所以古人说得好:“就是神在爱情中也难保持聪明。”情人的这种弱点不仅在外人眼中是明显的,就是在被追求者的眼中也会很明显——除非她(他)也在追求他(她)。所以,爱情的代价就是如此,不能得到回爱,就会得到一种深藏于心的轻蔑,这是一条永真的定律。

读关培根的散文 第四篇_培根美文赏析

培根美文赏析-Of Envy 论嫉妒

THERE be none of the affections, which have been noted to fascinate or bewitch, but love and envy. They both have vehement wishes; they frame themselves readily into imaginations and suggestions; and they come easily into the eye, especially upon the present of the objects; which are the points that conduce to fascination, if any such thing there be. We see likewise, the Scripture calleth envy an evil eye; and the astrologers, call the evil influences of the stars, evil aspects; so that still there seemeth to be acknowledged, in the act of envy, an ejaculation or irradiation of the eye.Nay, some have been so curious, as to note, that the times when the stroke or percussion of an envious eye doth most hurt, are when the party envied is beheld in glory or triumph; for that sets an edge upon envy: and besides, at such times the spirits of the person envied, do come forth most into the outward parts, and so meet the blow.

But leaving these curiosities (though not unworthy to be thought on, in fit place), we will handle, what persons are apt to envy others; what persons are most subject to be envied themselves; and what is the difference between public and private envy.

A man that hath no virtue in himself, ever envieth virtue in others. For men's minds, will either feed upon their own good, or upon others' evil; and who wanteth the one, will prey upon the other; and whoso is out of hope, to attain to another's virtue, will seek to come at even hand, by depressing another's fortune.

A man that is busy, and inquisitive, is commonly envious. For to know much of other men's matters, cannot be because all that ado may concern his own estate; therefore it must needs be, that he taketh a kind of play-pleasure, in looking upon the fortunes of others. Neither can he, that mindeth but his own business, find much matter for envy. For envy is a gadding passion, and walketh the streets, and doth not keep home: Non est curiosus, quin idem sit malevolus.

Men of noble birth, are noted to be envious towards new men, when they rise. For the distance is altered, and it is like a deceit of the eye, that when others come on, they think themselves, go back.

世人历来注意到,所有情感中最令人神魂颠倒着莫过于爱情和嫉妒。这两种感情都会激起强烈的欲望,而且均可迅速转化成联想和幻觉,容易钻进世人的眼睛,尤其容易降到被爱被妒者身上;这些便是导致蛊惑的要点,如果世间真有蛊惑的话。我们同样可以见到,《圣经》中把嫉妒称为“毒眼”①,占星术上则把不吉之星力叫作“凶象”③,以致世人似乎至今还承认,当嫉妒行为发生时,嫉妒者会眼红或曰红眼。而且有人更为明察秋毫,竟注意到红眼最伤人之际莫过于被嫉妒者正踌躇满志或春风得意之时,因为那种得意劲儿会使炉火燃得更旺。另外在这种时候,被嫉妒者的情绪最溢于言表,因此最容易遭受打击。

但暂且不谈这些蹊跷之处(虽说这些蹊跷并非不值得在适当的场合思量思量),笔者在此只想探讨一下哪些人好嫉妒他人,哪些人会遭受嫉妒,以及公众的嫉妒和私人间的嫉妒有何不同。

自身无德者常嫉妒他人之德,因为人心的滋养要么是自身之善,要么是他人之恶,而缺乏自身之善者必然要摄取他人之恶,于是凡无望达到他人之德行境地者便会极力贬低他人以求得平衡。

好管闲事且好深隐私者通常都好嫉妒,因为劳神费力地去打探别人的事情绝非是由于那些事与打探者的利害有关,所以其原因必定是打探者在旁观他人祸福时能获得一种视剧般的乐趣。而一心只管自家事的人无甚嫉妒的由来,因为嫉妒是一种爱游荡的感情,它总在街头闲逛,不肯呆在家里,所以古人说:

“好管闲事者必定没安好心。”

出身贵族者在新人晋爵时常生妒意,因为两者之间的差距缩短;而且这就像是看朱成碧,明明是别人上升,他们却看成是自己下降。

Deformed persons, and eunuchs, and old men, and bastards, are envious. For he that cannot possibly mend his own case, will do what he can, to impair another's; except these defects light upon a very brave, and heroical nature, which thinketh to make his natural wants part of his honor; in that it should be said, that an eunuch, or a lame man, did such great matters; affecting the honor of a miracle; as it was in Narses the eunuch, and Agesilaus and Tamberlanes, that were lame men.

The same is the case of men, that rise after calamities and misfortunes. For they are as men fallen out with the times; and think other men's harms, a redemption of their own sufferings.

They that desire to excel in too many matters, out of levity and vain glory, are ever envious. For they cannot want work; it being impossible, but many, in some one of those things, should surpass them. Which was the character of Adrian the Emperor; that mortally envied poets, and painters, and artificers, in works wherein he had a vein to excel.

Lastly, near kinsfolks, and fellows in office, and those that have been bred together, are more apt to envy their equals, when they are raised. For it doth upbraid unto them their own fortunes, and pointeth at them, and cometh oftener into their remembrance, and incurreth likewise more into the note of others; and envy ever redoubleth from speech and fame. Cain's envy was the more vile and malignant, towards his brother Abel, because when his sacrifice was better accepted, there was no body to look on. Thus much for those, that are apt to envy.

Concerning those that are more or less subject to envy: First, persons of eminent virtue, when they are advanced, are less envied. For their fortune seemeth , but due unto them; and no man envieth the payment of a debt, but rewards and liberality rather. Again, envy is ever joined with the comparing of a man's self; and where there is no comparison, no envy; and therefore kings are not envied, but by kings. Nevertheless it is to be noted, that unworthy persons are most envied, at their first coming in, and afterwards overcome it better; whereas contrariwise, persons of worth and merit are most envied, when their fortune continueth long. For by that time, though their virtue be the same, yet it hath not the same lustre; for fresh men grow up that darken it.

宦官、老人、残疾者和私生子都好嫉妒,因没法弥补自身缺陷的人总要干方百计给别人也造成缺陷,除非有上述缺陷者具有勇敢无畏的英雄气概,有志把自身的固有缺陷变成其荣誉之一部分。这样人们就会说:某宦官或瘸子竟创下如此殊勋伟业;正如宦官纳西斯以及瘸子阿偈西劳和帖木儿曾努力求得奇迹般的荣誉一样①。

在大苦大难后升迁的人也好嫉妒,因为他们就像时代的落伍者似的,以为别人受到伤害就可补偿自己曾经历的苦难。

那些因其轻薄和自负而想在各方面都胜过他人者亦常嫉妒,因为他们绝不会缺少嫉妒的对象,在他们想争胜的诸多方面之某一方面,不可能没有许多人会胜过他们。罗马皇帝哈德良就是这种嫉妒者,他善诗画和工艺,因此他非常嫉妒真正的诗人、画家和技师。

最后还有同族亲友、官场同僚和少时伙伴,这些人在平辈人升迁时更容易产生嫉妒。因为对他们来说,平辈的升迁不啻是在批评自己的身份,是在对自己进行指责。这种升迁会更经常地进入他们的记忆,同样也会更多地引起旁人的注意,而旁人对这种升迁的传扬往往会令嫉妒者妒意更浓。该隐对其弟亚伯的嫉妒之所以更为卑鄙邪恶,就因为亚伯的供奉被上帝悦纳时并没有旁人看见。①关于好嫉妒之人暂且就说到这里。

接下来笔者要谈谈那些或多或少会遭嫉妒的人的情况。首先,有大德者步入老年后较少遭人嫉妒,因为他们的幸运已显得不过是他们应得的报偿,而对应得的报偿谁也不会嫉妒,世人只嫉妒过于慷慨的奖赏和施舍。另一方面,嫉妒常产生在与人攀比之时,可以说没有攀比就没有嫉妒,故此为君者不会被其他人妒忌,除非妒忌者亦是君王。不过应该注意到,卑微之人在发迹之初最遭人妒忌,其后妒忌会逐渐减弱;但与此相反,品质优秀者则是在他们的好运赓续不断时遭妒最甚,因此时他们的优点虽依然如故,但已不如当初那样耀眼,后起之秀已使其黯然失色

Persons of noble blood, are less envied in their rising. For it seemeth but right done to their birth. Besides, there seemeth not much added to theirfortune; and envy is as the sunbeams, that beat hotter upon a bank, or steep rising ground, than upon a flat. And for the same reason, those that are advanced by degrees, are less envied than those that are advanced suddenly and per saltum.

Those that have joined with their honor great travels, cares, or perils, are less subject to envy. For men think that they earn their honors hardly, and pity them sometimes; and pity ever healeth envy. Wherefore you shall observe, that the more deep and sober sort of politic persons, in their greataess, are ever bemoaning themselves, what a life they lead; chanting a quanta patimur! Not that they feel it so, but only to abate the edge of envy. But this is to be understood, of business that is laid upon men, and not such, as they call unto themselves. For nothing increaseth envy more, than an unnecessary and ambitious engrossing of business. And nothing doth extinguish envy more, than for a great person to preserve all other inferior officers, in their full lights and pre-eminences of their places. For by that means, there be so many screens between him and envy.

Above all, those are most subject to envy, which carry the greatness of their fortunes, in an insolent and proud manner; being never well, but while they are showing how great they are, either by outward pomp, or by triumphing over all opposition or competition; whereas wise men will rather do sacrifice to envy, in suffering themselves sometimes of purpose to be crossed, and overborne in things that do not much concern them. Notwithstanding, so much is true, that the carriage of greatness, in a plain and open manner (so it be without arrogancy and vain glory) doth draw less envy, than if it be in a more crafty and cunning fashion. For in that course, a man doth but disavow fortune; and seemeth to be conscious of his own want in worth; and doth but teach others, to envy him.

Lastly, to conclude this part; as we said in the beginning, that the act of envy had somewhat in it of witchcraft, so there is no other cure of envy, but the cure of witchcraft; and that is, to remove the lot (as they call it) and to lay it upon another. For which purpose, the wiser sort of great persons, bring in ever upon the stage somebody upon whom to derive the envy, that would come upon themselves; sometimes upon ministers and servants; sometimes upon colleagues and associates; and the like; and for that turn there are never wanting, some persons of violent and undertaking natures, who, so they may have power and business, will take it at any cost.

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